Hand surgery covers many different types of procedures. Plastic surgeons may perform hand surgery to restore hand and finger function or to make the hand look as normal as possible after an injury or disease.
Common reasons for hand surgery include physical damage from injury, congenital disorders, rheumatoid joint injuries (arthritis), tendon repair, nerve repair, joint replacement, or carpal tunnel release.
Shoulder surgery is often used to treat a frozen or dislocated shoulder, rotator cuff injuries, or a fracture of the shoulder blade (scapula).
A physical examination is used to assess swelling, tenderness, range of motion, strength or weakness, instability, and/or deformity of the shoulder to determine if surgery is necessary.
X-rays, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may also help assess soft tissues in the shoulder. Computed tomography (CT) scan may be used to evaluate the bony parts of the shoulder.